Aalborg East - from an isolated vulnerable area to an inclusive community

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Aalborg East - from an isolated vulnerable area to an inclusive community

Policies and regulations Local policies Land Building capacity Public-private initiatives Participatory processes
Urban Design Urban fabrics Liveability Inclusion Public-private initiative Participatory processes
Ownership and tenure Protection of social housing Public-private partnerships

Main objectives of the project

An isolated an deprived residential area in Denmark's fourth-largest city had, since its construction in the 1960s and 70s, experienced increasing decline and negative spiral. Now, Aalborg East is a mixed community, with a vivid atmosphere and centered on the well-being of its citizens. It has become a story of success in social housing policies in Europe.

Date

  • 2011: Construction
  • 2023: Ganador

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: Aalborg Municipality
  • Constructor: Himmerland Boligforening

Location

Continent: Europe
Country/Region: Denmark

Description

Aalborg East, originally established as a satellite city in the 1970s, faced significant challenges over the past years, characterized by deteriorating old buildings, primarily comprised of social housing, and a declining economy leading to escalating issues of unemployment and crime. Recognizing the urgent need for intervention, a comprehensive urban transformation initiative was launched, encompassing the renovation of over 2,000 affordable homes. This ambitious endeavor was guided by two fundamental principles: the promotion of a diverse community and the active engagement of local residents throughout the process. Thus, homes were renovated, new shops were added, private homes were built and several social initiatives were adopted. Residents sat at the table as urban planners, so no homes have been demolished, and no residents have been displaced.
The whole process has been vastly affected by tenant democracy. There were building committees consisting of tenants, and every major decision was made at attendant meetings. Strong and strategic partnerships with both the public and private sector were also central because a housing association cannot do it all by themselves. For example, construction fields have been sold to private investors to densify some areas with freestanding house blocks and to diversify the economy.
In conclusion, the renovations were completed by using a variety of building types, appealing to a wider residential composition. Moreover, new infraestructure was put in place to foster the new mixed community. For instance, a new health house was built where training courses are in place, which makes the area more visible for people who would not visit Aalborg East daily. It is fair to say that the Danish social housing provider Himmerland Boligforening went further than usual, leading the way in Europe on how to integrate social housing tenants in the strategic city development as well as making them active city planners. The results are astonishing. Now Aalborg East is an area of well-being with safe areas, no crime, and great economic growth.
In 2023, the project won the NEB awards in “Prioritising the places and people that need it the most”.

Johannesburg Housing Company

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Johannesburg Housing Company

Mismatches Location
Policies and regulations Local policies Public-private initiatives
Financing Supply subsidies
Promotion and production Public-private partnerships Private promotion Favelas/Slums

Main objectives of the project

When addressing informal settlements and the relocation of their residents, the common solution often involves outskirts due to their affordability. Typically, a large proportion of slum dwellers gravitate towards the outskirts of cities. However, Johannesburg has adopted a different approach. In efforts to rejuvenate its downtown area, the city has embraced an alternative strategy. Through the utilization of a non-profit institution, Johannesburg has implemented social housing initiatives within its city center. By repurposing abandoned or deteriorating buildings, the city has not only revitalized its downtown core but also provided much-needed social housing options.

Date

  • 1995: Implementation

Stakeholders

  • SHRA
  • Promotor: JHC

Location

Continent: Africa
Country/Region: Johannesburg, South Africa

Description

In South Africa, a significant portion of tenants reside in informal settlements, with over 400,000 housing units constructed on unauthorized land lacking basic services and vulnerable to environmental hazards like floods and fires. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of shacks erected in the backyards of existing dwellings surged by 55%, totaling more than 700,000 units. Despite the existence of the Social Housing Policy since 1994, the establishment of the regulatory authority (SHRA) in 2010 marked notable progress. The Minister of Human Settlements pledged the delivery of 1.5 million new housing opportunities by 2019.

Social housing projects are financed through a blend of government funds, debt, and up to 10% from for-profit private capital. The national government, via the SHRA, subsidizes up to 65% of capital costs and allows subsidized units for tenants meeting specific monthly family income thresholds. These subsidized units must constitute between 30% and 70% of all mixed projects.

Investment opportunities include the Social Housing Institution (SHI) model, where non-profit entities or owners undertake projects inclusive of social housing. Currently, around 83 SHIs have been established, delivering approximately 33,000 units nationwide. However, while the number of institutions is on the rise, the rate of unit development hasn't matched, leading to financial challenges for many. Only six out of the 83 institutions are financially stable, with an additional 25 potentially viable.

In Johannesburg, two SHIs have demonstrated remarkable success. One such entity is the Johannesburg Housing Company (JHC), founded in 1995, which has pioneered an innovative affordable housing model with efficient building management and exemplary customer service. It has facilitated the development of over 4,293 rental housing units, providing homes for more than 19,478 individuals. JHC's efforts have played a pivotal role in revitalizing downtown Johannesburg, transforming dilapidated or abandoned buildings into modern architecture units. The company utilizes two components of the rental housing policy: urban restructuring zones declaration and the Inner City Property Scheme (ICPS), formerly known as the Bad Building Program.

Initial funding provided to JHC enabled it to establish a solid capital base necessary for large-scale social housing development in the downtown area. By the late 2000s, JHC had a portfolio comprising nine renovated buildings and two new construction projects. The organization's cost management strategy ensures each building covers its operating costs, including interest on operating income.

Contrary to traditional urban regeneration strategies focused solely on economic growth, JHC's approach emphasizes building improvements, renovations, and new constructions to increase the city's housing stock by approximately 10% while rejuvenating rundown structures to provide affordable rents and decent housing. However, the future of social rental housing faces challenges, particularly regarding the diminishing availability of affordable land in restructuring zones.

Parque Novo Santo Amaro V

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Parque Novo Santo Amaro V

Mismatches Location Segregation Services Cultural suitability Diversity Vulnerable groups Climate change
Urban Design Modelos De Ciudad Urban fabrics Services and infrastructure Environments Quality Liveability Inclusion Equity
Promotion and production Public promotion Favelas/Slums
Ownership and tenure Ownership

Main objectives of the project

São Paulo's housing initiative in Santo Amaro stands as a testament to conscientious urban planning, prioritizing the needs of marginalized communities while preserving their social fabric. By strategically integrating social housing within existing settlements and leveraging environmental considerations, the project mitigated risks of displacement and fragmentation. Through thoughtful interventions like reclaiming green areas and improving water management, the initiative not only provided homes but also fostered a sense of belonging and sustainability within the community.

Date

  • 2012: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: City of São Paulo
  • Constructor: Mananciais Consortium
  • Architect: Vigliecca & Associados

Location

Continent: South America
Country/Region: Brazil, São Paulo

Description

This initiative took place within Santo Amaro, one of the informal settlements situated on the southern outskirts of São Paulo. Public transportation options within the neighborhood are limited, often resulting in a two-hour commute to downtown. Furthermore, essential infrastructure such as educational and recreational facilities is lacking, contributing to diminished productivity and prosperity within the community. Covering 13 acres, the intervention site lies within a special social interest area (ZEIS 1), also designated as an environmental protection area due to its proximity to the Guarapiranga reservoir.

Established in 2001, the ZEIS category encompasses four types of areas: slums requiring physical upgrades, slums situated in environmentally sensitive zones, undeveloped peripheral regions, and abandoned neighborhoods in the city center. The updated São Paulo master plan designates an additional 13 square miles as new ZEIS areas, aiming to foster social interest housing development while identifying areas with low population density and adequate access to public services.

Initiated by the municipal government of São Paulo and overseen by the Housing Department, the project's primary objective was to relocate 200 families living along the banks of the Guarapiranga reservoir, vulnerable to natural disasters. To prevent gentrification and internal displacements, the project was strategically developed within the existing community area, considering water and environmental management aspects.

Collaborating with the state government, the municipal administration facilitated the expropriation of homes belonging to the 200 families. During the construction phase of their new homes, these families were temporarily relocated to subsidized rentals nearby. Upon project completion, each family was allocated a residential unit. However, as the land is city-owned, families do not possess ownership rights to their apartments initially. Instead, they pay a monthly occupancy permit fee until the land titling process is finalized, enabling residents to purchase their homes with state subsidies.

The total project cost in 2009 amounted to approximately USD 6 million, with an average unit cost of around USD 30,000. Rather than imposing a new urban reality, the project focused on thoughtful interventions in the existing urban landscape, leveraging its inherent resources. A linear park, serving as the project's focal point, reclaimed green areas lost during informal settlement development. Community amenities, such as children's parks, skating rinks, soccer fields, and schools, were strategically integrated along the park, promoting resident engagement and neighborhood cohesion.

Prior to the project, children had to navigate a contaminated stream to reach school. As part of the intervention, the stream was diverted underground, and water mirrors were created to preserve residents' environmental connection. Today, the area sources water from various rehabilitated outlets.

Comprising buildings ranging from five to seven stories, the 200 residential units offer diverse layouts, including options for individuals with disabilities. The design prioritizes pedestrian-friendly features, accommodating non-residents who utilize the walkways.

The overarching goal of the project was to enhance living standards and foster prosperity within the vulnerable Santo Amaro community. By delivering formal housing infrastructure and comprehensive services, the project facilitates daily life for residents and cultivates a sense of belonging among families. Moreover, by relocating families susceptible to natural disasters, the project mitigated the risk of community displacement and fragmentation.

Furthermore, the project successfully integrated building design with the surrounding landscape, addressing structural challenges such as water management. Plentiful high-quality public spaces, accessible not only to residents but also to the broader neighborhood, were incorporated. Given the precarious conditions of informal communities in Latin America, social housing initiatives should be accompanied by comprehensive social programs, empowering communities to manage and care for their habitats while fostering development and ownership.

Pedregulho Housing Complex Restoration

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Pedregulho Housing Complex Restoration

Mismatches Security Functional adequacy Services Cultural suitability Vulnerable groups
Policies and regulations National policies Local policies
Urban Design Services and infrastructure Quality Liveability Regulación Técnica Participatory processes
Promotion and production Public promotion Self-management
Ownership and tenure Protection of social housing

Main objectives of the project

The restoration of the Pedregulho Housing Complex exemplifies the power of community involvement and strategic planning in revitalizing historic architectural landmarks. Led by the Pedregulho Neighbors Association and architect Alfredo Britto, the project addressed decades of neglect and deterioration, guided by a comprehensive restoration plan. By balancing the preservation of architectural character with contemporary demands, such as parking and security, the project not only restored Pedregulho to its former glory but also empowered residents to take ownership of their living environment. This successful restoration effort stands as a testament to the importance of community engagement in preserving cultural heritage for future generations.

Date

  • 2010: Construction
  • 2004: Implementation

Stakeholders

  • Pedregulho Neighbors Association
  • Architect: Alfredo Britto
  • Promotor: Companhia Estadual de Habitação do Rio de Janeiro

Location

Continent: South America
City: Rio de Janeiro
Country/Region: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

Description

Constructed between 1946 and 1948 in São Cristóvão, a neighborhood north of Rio de Janeiro, the Pedregulho Housing Complex provided 522 units for low-income municipal employees, featuring a comprehensive range of facilities and social services. Designed by architect Affonso Eduardo Reidy, the complex adhered to urban principles outlined by the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM), complemented by landscape design from renowned architect Burle Marx. Despite being a prominent example of modern Brazilian architecture, Pedregulho was part of a larger initiative by the Rio de Janeiro Department of People’s Housing, inspired by post-World War II British city reconstruction efforts. Inaugurated in 1950, the complex initially served as a relocation site for residents of informal settlements. However, by the 1960s and 1970s, neglect, disorderly occupation, and wear and tear led to its decline. Although recognized as a cultural monument in 1986, Pedregulho received minimal investment until 2002 when residents initiated a renovation campaign.

Led by the Pedregulho Neighbors Association and architect Alfredo Britto, the renovation efforts began in 2004 with the introduction of a Strategic Restoration Plan. TThe strategic guidelines encompassed several key aspects: maintaining the complex's architectural and urban character, adhering to its original intentions while restoring functionality, preserving existing materials and characteristics if compatible with proposed uses and restoration costs, and addressing contemporary demands and needs without compromising overarching restoration criteria. These contemporary demands include provisions for parking, television antennas, outdoor clotheslines, housing complex security, and garbage collection.

Restoration work commenced in 2010, addressing technical, social, and financial challenges, including residents' continued occupancy during renovation. To foster community involvement, job opportunities were provided to residents, with association leaders mediating between technical and resident concerns. Social workers facilitated ongoing dialogue and highlighted the complex's cultural value.

The restoration of Pedregulho reflects the broader need to revitalize existing housing complexes facing qualitative deficits over time. Community involvement was integral to the project's success, preventing unwanted gentrification and ensuring the active participation of original residents. A permanent maintenance committee further sustains resident engagement, underscoring their commitment to preserving their homes for the future.

Bilbao-Bolueta regeneration

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Bilbao-Bolueta regeneration

Mismatches Location Financing Functional adequacy Services Cultural suitability Diversity Climate change
Policies and regulations Local policies Land Building capacity Planning
Financing Public funding Land Based Finance
Promotion and production Public promotion Innovation Technology

Main objectives of the project

The urban regeneration initiative in Bolueta, spearheaded by VISESA and leveraging the natural landscape along the river, demonstrates a strategic approach to reclaiming degraded land for societal benefit. Through a blend of protected housing development and soil remediation, the project not only addresses housing needs but also fosters citizen engagement in decision-making, contributing to social cohesion and environmental sustainability. In fact, the social housing building is, today, the highest passivhouse in the world. Bolueta serves as a model for Bilbao's broader transformation strategy, exemplifying the city's shift from industrial decline to innovative urban development.

Date

  • 2018: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Constructor: Construcciones Sukia Eraikuntzak
  • Architect: German Velázquez
  • Promotor: VISESA

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Bilbao
Country/Region: Bilbao, Spain

Description

Bolueta, although well-connected to Bilbao, Spain, has long suffered from environmental degradation and neglect. The intervention in Bolueta represents a strategic urban regeneration effort aimed at reclaiming contaminated industrial land for the benefit of society. This operation combines the development of protected housing with soil remediation, presenting an opportunity to adapt existing residential and economic facilities while promoting citizen participation in decision-making.

The entity tasked with implementing and constructing the new public housing developments is VISESA, a public company under the Basque Government responsible for housing policy development. Established in 1992, VISESA has constructed 15,283 homes in the Basque Country, managing land and promoting sustainable social housing in line with Basque housing law. VISESA actively engages in urban renewal and housing rehabilitation to enhance accessibility and improve quality of life while promoting sustainable territorial development.

The solution proposes integrating Bolueta into Bilbao's urban, social, and environmental fabric, leveraging the river as a central element for natural landscape preservation and enhancement. The renovated space supports a social public housing program, with 608 out of 1100 homes designated as social public housing to address housing needs and contribute to social cohesion. The public housing project prioritizes energy efficiency, acoustic and thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and the use of natural and healthy building materials.

The primary positive impact on the community is the provision of 1100 new homes, including 608 social public housing units to address housing accessibility challenges. This development is the tallest passive house building in the world. The residential development has also created public spaces enriched with interconnected amenities, with 25,386.38m2 of pedestrian areas along the riverside promenade. The design improvements enhance accessibility, mobility, comfort, air quality, flood risk management, urban complexity, social cohesion, efficiency of urban services, green spaces, and biodiversity.

The social public housing units meet the Passive House quality standard, making them the highest certified buildings globally, recognized at the 22nd International Passive House Conference in 2018. The project's success has attracted national and international interest, with visits from delegations from countries such as India, Canada, and Colombia, as well as 800 professionals visiting nationally to learn from the Bolueta experience.

Bolueta exemplifies Bilbao's ongoing transformation. Once a city in decline in the 1980s, Bilbao's soil strategy has converted former industrial land into public space for top-tier services and social housing projects. Bilbao, rather than developing new costly developments is changing all the Nervion River bank to transform its city. With the surplus of transforming industrial land into new uses, they manage to invest in public housing or key infrastructure that the city need. This scheme has been worldwide recognized as a success.

Housing For The Fishermen Of Tyre, Beirut

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Housing For The Fishermen Of Tyre, Beirut

Mismatches Location Cultural suitability Diversity Vulnerable groups
Urban Design Quality Liveability Inclusion Equity
Promotion and production Cooperatives
Ownership and tenure Shared ownership

Main objectives of the project

In response to economic, social and cultural challenges of Tyre’s access to housing, the Al Baqaa Housing Cooperative was formed by fishermen, who secured land outside the city center with the help of the Greek Orthodox Church. Collaborating with architect Hashim Sarkis, they developed a housing project tailored to their needs, emphasizing equality among units and providing private outdoor spaces for all residents.

Date

  • 2008: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Architect: Hashim Sarkis
  • Promotor: Al Baqaa Housing Cooperative
  • Association for the Development of Rural Areas in Southern Lebanon (ADR)

Location

Continent: Asia
Country/Region: Lebanon, Tyre

Description

Tyre, an ancient coastal city situated south of Beirut, has grappled with maintaining its infrastructure amidst persistent chaos and conflict. Among the hardest-hit are the local fishermen, who have faced significant challenges due to the ongoing conflict with Israel, preventing them from engaging in deep-sea fishing. Despite being added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1984 during the Lebanese Civil War, the city faced new regulations on coastal construction, leading to overcrowded and unsanitary living conditions for the fishermen.

In response to these challenges, the fishermen established the Al Baqaa Housing Cooperative and secured a parcel of land outside the historic city center through a donation from the Greek Orthodox Church. Collaborating with architect Hashim Sarkis, they developed a housing project tailored to their needs.

Given the unpredictable context and the distance from Tyre's residential neighborhoods, the housing complex's design incorporates a prominent building along the site perimeter. This building not only serves as a boundary but also organizes the surrounding streets and lots, creating internal roads and open spaces. Pedestrian circulation is facilitated through openings in the linear mass, creating variations in building volumes that blend with the surroundings.

The fishermen's primary concern was equality among units, particularly in terms of views and outdoor spaces. Consequently, the units were designed differently based on their location. The project comprises 80 two-bedroom units, each with approximately 925 sq. ft. of interior space and half that in private outdoor areas, organized into three types of housing blocks or clusters.

A defining feature of the project is the central open space, characterized by a rectilinear spiral arrangement of buildings surrounding it. This space includes paved areas, a shared water tank, and planted gardens, with trees marking entrance paths between buildings, enhancing the connection between the central space and external streets.

In a decade-long collaboration with the cooperative, Sarkis developed a modern housing system that accommodates the fishermen's needs and budget while fostering a sense of community. Through thoughtful architecture, landscaping, and urban planning, the project exemplifies the transformative potential of design in mitigating conflict while honoring community values.

Ixtepec Reconstruction

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Ixtepec Reconstruction

Mismatches Security Climate change
Policies and regulations Building capacity Participatory processes
Urban Design Services and infrastructure Environments Quality Liveability Participatory processes
Promotion and production Private promotion Innovation Materials Self-management Self-promotion Self-construction

Main objectives of the project

In September 2017, Oaxaca, Mexico, experienced its most devastating earthquake in history, severely damaging the traditionally constructed homes of indigenous communities. However, the intervention of the local NGO Cooperación Comunitaria (CC) revolutionized the situation, rallying the community to construct homes capable of withstanding earthquakes while utilizing traditional techniques suited to the local climate and culture. This initiative stood in stark contrast to the approach of state and federal governments, which aimed for a rapid, market-driven reconstruction. Their plan involved demolishing affected homes and providing a 120,000-peso card to construct standardized prototypes, disregarding the needs of the population, local organization, and the cultural and climatic context of the region. In response, CC has worked alongside affected communities, supporting processes of social reconstruction, fostering solidarity and self-organization, and respecting their cultural traditions and way of life.

Date

  • 2017: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: Cooperación Comunitaria

Location

Continent: North America
Country/Region: Mexico

Description

In 2017, the devastating earthquake in Oaxaca struck the indigenous community of Ixtepecano, prompting the municipal government to initiate demolition, replacing traditional architectural heritage with modern, inadequate housing. However, the intervention of local NGO Cooperación Comunitaria A.C. brought about a significant transformation.

The initiative began within the community itself when the Ixtepecano Committee, a local organization, reached out to Cooperación Comunitaria A.C. to aid in rebuilding homes. CC conducted thorough assessments of the damage and vulnerability of families, including mapping exercises. Through assemblies and meetings, a reconstruction model was collaboratively developed with the families. As part of the technical assistance and social support process, CC revived traditional construction methods with the communities, emphasizing the use of local materials to reduce ecological impact and make self-construction of housing feasible. Traditional housing styles such as Bajareque, Adobe, and brick and rope were recovered and reinforced to withstand earthquakes and strong winds without compromising cultural and climatic suitability.

Recognizing the importance of economic recovery alongside housing reconstruction, traditional ovens and kitchens were integrated into the rebuilding process to revive local women's livelihoods. An Arts and Trades Centre was established to train individuals in traditional building techniques for kitchen construction. Additionally, local maize varieties were reintroduced for staple totopos production, while workshops on construction skills, disaster risk management, and natural resource utilization were conducted. Notably, 107 women have revitalized their businesses through the restoration of 196 traditional ovens and kitchens, contributing to household economic recovery. Model kitchen proposals developed in community design workshops, education on natural resource management for 247 individuals, and training for 73 builders on reinforcement techniques further enhanced community resilience.

The project has restored and reinforced 58 traditional houses, built 22 new reinforced houses, reinforced 90 kitchens with the bajareque cerén construction system, constructed 256 comixcales and 27 bread ovens, along with 2 community centers and 2 dry toilets. This reconstruction process underscores the effectiveness and necessity of traditional collective work and mutual support approaches. Activities reinforcing community organization, such as integral community diagnosis and participative design, along with technical knowledge transmission and training on risk management and housing rights, are integral parts of the project. Continuous evaluation of housing conditions, usage, and maintenance ensures sustainability.

This project exemplifies how community empowerment can counter government displacement and update traditional structures to meet 21st-century needs, emphasizing resilience. Furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of cooperative and communal economic structures alongside housing restoration to ensure affordability.

Kampung Susun Produktif Tumbuh Cakung, Jakarta

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Kampung Susun Produktif Tumbuh Cakung, Jakarta

Mismatches Location Security Functional adequacy Services Vulnerable groups Climate change
Policies and regulations Regulation Participatory processes
Urban Design Services and infrastructure Environments Quality Liveability Inclusion Equity Participatory processes
Ownership and tenure Shared ownership

Main objectives of the project

In response to Jakarta's sinking crisis, Bukit Duri residents faced eviction in 2016. Deemed illegal, this sparked a movement led by Ciliwung Merdeka, empowering residents to demand their rights. The result? Kampung Susun—a cooperative where former residents manage their space, integrating living and economic activities, defying traditional public housing norms, and fostering community resilience and cohesion.

Date

  • 2020: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Constructor: PT. Jaya Konstruksi Manggala Pratama Tbk.
  • Architect: STUDIO AKANOMA
  • Promotor: Jakarta City Hall
  • Promotor: Ciliwung Merdeka

Location

Continent: Asia
Country/Region: Indonesia, Jakarta

Description

Jakarta is confronted with a significant threat: the city is sinking, resulting in more frequent floods and substantial portions of the city being submerged. The most vulnerable communities are bearing the brunt of this issue. In 2016, seventy families in Bukit Duri, Jakarta, were forcibly removed from their homes as part of efforts to address the city’s chronic flooding problems. However, the eviction was subsequently deemed illegal. In 2017, the State Administrative Court ruled that the eviction lacked legal justification and that the residents were entitled to compensation. Volunteers from the organization Ciliwung Merdeka collaborated with the residents, spanning from children to adults, to empower the community through various programs aimed at fostering solidarity and self-reliance. These initiatives encompassed educational programs for children, public health education, waste management, economic empowerment, art and culture education, disaster response and mitigation, as well as spatial planning and architecture. Additionally, they collectively advocated for government recognition that impoverished citizens deserved adequate living conditions and demonstrated that viable alternatives to eviction existed.

One such alternative materialized in the form of the Kampung Susun new residence and cooperative, where residents themselves assume responsibility for the neighborhood's upkeep. Tenants are not required to pay rent but are obligated to contribute a maintenance fee to the cooperative, which also has the capacity to provide residents with business capital. The design process began with identifying spaces tailored to the economic development needs of former Kampung Bukit Duri residents, the majority of whom are engaged in the informal business sector and own small enterprises. The design concept emulates the urban settlement model, featuring small houses with dedicated economic spaces, giving rise to the term "kampung susun." Notably, Kampung Susun stands out from Jakarta's conventional public housing projects, known as rusunawa, which typically lack provisions for business activities. Each residential unit in Kampung Susun encompasses both living and economic spaces, with communal areas on the ground floor enabling residents to engage in commerce. Additionally, residents have the opportunity to expand their living quarters vertically, facilitated by a mezzanine level within each unit.

Measuring 36 m2 in total, with 21 m2 designated for private use and 15 m2 allocated for business or workspace, each residential unit is designed to accommodate growth. This innovative approach to urban settlement, known as Kampung Susun Produktif Tumbuh, or growing, productive stacked kampong, addresses the challenges of densely populated urban environments and the limitations of traditional housing construction. Beyond serving as mere dwellings, Kampung Susun fosters a sense of community where residents can engage in economic activities and foster friendly interactions, recognizing the distinct characteristics of urban settlement inhabitants compared to those residing in the outskirts of the city.

The case is undoubtedly a resilient solution to an unprecedented climate problem. Bottom-up and from the community, it solves a huge challenge of obtaining public housing in an adverse context, promoting the productive economy of its residents.

Habitatge Metròpolis (HMB), Barcelona

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Habitatge Metròpolis (HMB), Barcelona

Policies and regulations Local policies Global frameworks Governance Public-private initiatives
Financing Public funding Public-private collaboration
Promotion and production Public-private partnerships
Ownership and tenure Protection of social housing Public-private partnerships

Main objectives of the project

Habitatge Metròplis is the metropolitan operator for the promotion of public housing. A mixed public-private company that seeks to build social housing in a profitable way for the private company. Its greatest advantages are 1) the innovative governance it assumes and 2) its metropolitan dimension.

Date

  • 2019: Implementation

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: Barcelona City Council
  • Promotor: Metropolitan Area of Barcleona (AMB)
  • Promotor: Neinor Homes, S.A

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Barcelona
Country/Region: Barcelona, Spain

Description

Barcelona is facing the biggest housing crisis in recent years. In the capital and its metropolitan area, rents are much higher than in the rest of the country. This is causing applications for social housing to skyrocket. Despite this, the number of social housing units in Barcelona is well below the European average and is falling. This is due to the fact that for years, social housing was under ownership regime. That is, after a few years it ceases to be protected and goes to the free market. Thus, there is a need to build social housing quickly and in large quantities.

Unfortunately, the administration alone could not cope with the great demand. That is why they have decided to promote a metropolitan operator. That is to say, they have created a mixed company, between the public and private sectors, to promote social housing for the metropolitan area of Barcelona. The goal is to build 4500 homes in 6 years, 50% within the city of Barcelona and 50% in the metropolitan area. The shareholders of the company are the AMB (25%), the Barcelona City Council (25%), the company NICRENT Residencial (50%), of which Neinor Homes, S.A. and CEVASA are 50% shareholders. The balance between public and private partners and the relationship of equality, co-responsibility and long-term trust is the basis for sharing investment efforts, risks, costs and benefits. This formula guarantees the social goals of the project and its economic success, taking into account the technical capabilities and economic solvency of the participating partners.

Unlike in the past, all the housing will be for subsidized rental at below-market prices and will always be publicly owned. In this way, the land will remain under social housing protection, despite the passage of time. With regard to construction, the operator must guarantee environmental quality and sustainability with energy saving criteria and promote accessibility and architectural quality.

It is the first company of its kind to have a metropolitan dimension in Spain. In fact, Spain has a high deficit of metropolitan housing policies. A study has detected 384 institutions operating in Spain's metropolitan environments. Of these, only about 30 deal directly or indirectly with the issue of housing, despite being one of the main problems of Spanish cities (1). Thus, the operator is innovative because it assumes, for the first time, that housing does not have a municipal dimension, but goes beyond its limits. In this way, its metropolitan approach is vital for developing a joint housing policy among the 36 municipalities that make up the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona.

(1) To see more into: Tomàs, M. (2023). Metrópolis sin gobierno. La anomalía española en Europa. Ed. Tirant lo Blanch.

Links

Las Carolinas-Entrepatios, Madrid

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Las Carolinas-Entrepatios, Madrid

Mismatches Location Price Functional adequacy Services Diversity New family structures
Urban Design Modelos De Ciudad Environments Quality Liveability Inclusion Participatory processes
Promotion and production Private promotion Materials Self-management Self-promotion Cooperatives
Ownership and tenure Shared ownership

Main objectives of the project

Las Carolinas-Entrepatios is the first ecological building with right of use in Spain that has been built between the centre of Madrid and the suburbs. It is a cohousing project, which means that it is the neighbours, members of the cooperative, who, through a participatory decision-making process, have decided on everything from the ecological materials to be used in the construction of the building to what part of the budget will be allocated to the insulation of the building and the type of air conditioning, among other things. Communal spaces make up 15% of the building: a communal courtyard; a room that serves as a children’s play area and as a space for weekly food distribution; a garage with mainly bicycles; a room dedicated to housing a large cistern where rainwater is collected, treated and used for toilets and gardening, by drip; a workshop room where neighbours work with their hands; a communal laundry; and a rooftop dedicated to adult leisure. The child population accounts for almost half of the total, some twenty children between the ages of two and twelve. Las Carolinas cooperative is made up of the fifty-three people who live in its seventeen dwellings. Depending on the size of their dwelling, they have paid between 40,000 and 50,000 euros as a down payment, an amount that will be returned if they leave the cooperative and replaced by those who move in. The ownership of the building remains in the hands of the cooperative and its members use the homes, but never own them.

Date

  • 2020: Construction
  • 2016: En proceso

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: Entrepatios
  • Architect: Lógica’Eco
  • Architect: TécnicaEco
  • Architect: sAtt

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

A few meters from the Manzanares River, in the neighborhood of Carolinas, in Orcasur (Usera), stands the first right-to-use collaborative housing building in the city of Madrid. This project, focused on environmental and community sustainability, has been conceived as a building with its own energy production and a very low energy demand, housing a community based on mutual support. The Las Carolinas development consists of 17 homes, inhabited by 32 adults and 20 children.

Usera, where this innovative building is located, is a peripheral municipality of Madrid that has faced social challenges, including difficulties of access to housing. Emerging from an active neighborhood movement, this project represents a radical, anti-speculative and accessible solution that integrates with the local community. In contrast to the dynamics of marginalization and privatization that have affected the neighborhood, the Entrepatios initiative aims to create inclusive spaces that strengthen the community fabric.
The system used involves a group of people forming a cooperative, which acquires the land and constructs the building. However, the residents do not own the land; instead, they only have the right to use the building as part of the cooperative. This approach prioritizes the use value of the building over land value speculation, offering a solution against gentrification and dispossession.

Since the acquisition of the site in 2016, the cooperative has navigated various forms of participation in the management of the process, with the collaboration of Lógica'Eco for technical aspects and the architectural design by the sAtt studio and TécnicaEco. Funding came from ethical banking and donations. The building, located on an elongated south-facing site, consists of 17 apartments with access through an outdoor corrala, which serves as a circulation and meeting space. Common spaces include first floor and attic space for various community activities, as well as a small workshop in the basement and a common laundry room.

In keeping with its commitment to climate change mitigation and resident comfort, the building prioritizes energy efficiency and comfort, especially in summer, through quality insulation and renewable energy generation. The garden is drip-fed, a rainwater cistern is provided for water savings, and the materials used prevent the release of volatile organic materials. A wooden structure is used. In order to have clean air, we will have a double-flow controlled mechanical ventilation system, which will prevent pollutants from entering from the outside thanks to a filter. This initiative seeks to reduce energy demand and promote a more sustainable lifestyle in a city increasingly affected by heat. The project has been certified with ECOMETRO and has been designed with high energy efficiency standards, incorporating renewable technologies such as solar panels on the roof.

The Entrepatios building is proof of the possibility of housing that is free from speculation, resilient to climate change, and fosters cooperative and communal living in a vulnerable neighborhood of a large metropolis.