Observatorio de la Vulnerabilidad Urbana, Spain

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Observatorio de la Vulnerabilidad Urbana, Spain

Mismatches
Policies and regulations National policies Governance Data and monitoring Evaluation and impact

Main objectives of the project

The Spanish Ministry of Housing Development realized that, despite having systematized housing census data, it had not systematized the information to make informed affordable housing and neighborhood improvement policies. For this reason, it has created the Observatory of Urban Vulnerability. The objective of this observatory is to inform through an open data system the information available from the Spanish administrations on residential insecurity, unaffordable housing or urban deprivation.

Date

  • 2015: Implementation

Stakeholders

  • Ministerio de Fomento (Spain)

Location

City: Madrid
Country/Region: Spain

Description

Spanish cities are facing an unprecedented housing crisis. Added to this is an aging housing stock, most of which is owned but whose inhabitants do not have the capacity to rehabilitate the buildings. In this way, Spain sees how the social crisis is added to the housing crisis, giving rise to significant urban vulnerabilities and growing residential insecurities. For this reason, it wanted to promote various programs to help alleviate this situation. The problem was (and is) that there is no systematized, open and worked data on these matters. Hence the Observatory of Urban Vulnerability was born.

The Observatory manages 2 atlases or data visualizations. One is directly related to housing. It is the Atlas of Residential Building in Spain, with information on the characteristics of residential buildings and housing at the census section level of all Spanish municipalities (referring to the Population and Housing Censuses of 2001, 2011 and 2018). The indicators range from income to the state of housing in the last two decades. All of this is delimited in census sections, the smallest delimitation that Spain has, comparable to neighborhoods.

The other atlas is that of Urban Vulnerability. In this case, the Observatory relates the housing situation with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of its inhabitants. In this way it can generate an index of urban deprivation for the whole state, detecting which locations will have the most difficulties in the future to live in adequate living conditions.

Apart from the visualization of the data, the observatory reports on them. All the data it generates is open to the public and easy to consult. In fact, the objective is to be used by other administrations and researchers as a reference in the field in the state. From there, to share diagnoses and common actions in urban regeneration. This fact is especially important in Spain, whose competencies in housing are the responsibility of the Autonomous Communities (regions and nations of the State) and not the central government. Thus, the observatory can be a support point for common information and coordination. It is being so for the development of the Urban Agendas.

Although it is not exclusively a housing observatory, it has an impact on the capacity of inhabitants to access housing and its characteristics. In this way, it is a vital instrument for their policies.

Las Carolinas-Entrepatios, Madrid

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Las Carolinas-Entrepatios, Madrid

Mismatches Location Price Functional adequacy Services Diversity New family structures
Urban Design Modelos De Ciudad Environments Quality Liveability Inclusion Participatory processes
Promotion and production Private promotion Materials Self-management Self-promotion Cooperatives
Ownership and tenure Shared ownership

Main objectives of the project

Las Carolinas-Entrepatios is the first ecological building with right of use in Spain that has been built between the centre of Madrid and the suburbs. It is a cohousing project, which means that it is the neighbours, members of the cooperative, who, through a participatory decision-making process, have decided on everything from the ecological materials to be used in the construction of the building to what part of the budget will be allocated to the insulation of the building and the type of air conditioning, among other things. Communal spaces make up 15% of the building: a communal courtyard; a room that serves as a children’s play area and as a space for weekly food distribution; a garage with mainly bicycles; a room dedicated to housing a large cistern where rainwater is collected, treated and used for toilets and gardening, by drip; a workshop room where neighbours work with their hands; a communal laundry; and a rooftop dedicated to adult leisure. The child population accounts for almost half of the total, some twenty children between the ages of two and twelve. Las Carolinas cooperative is made up of the fifty-three people who live in its seventeen dwellings. Depending on the size of their dwelling, they have paid between 40,000 and 50,000 euros as a down payment, an amount that will be returned if they leave the cooperative and replaced by those who move in. The ownership of the building remains in the hands of the cooperative and its members use the homes, but never own them.

Date

  • 2020: Construction
  • 2016: En proceso

Stakeholders

  • Promotor: Entrepatios
  • Architect: Lógica’Eco
  • Architect: TécnicaEco
  • Architect: sAtt

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

A few meters from the Manzanares River, in the neighborhood of Carolinas, in Orcasur (Usera), stands the first right-to-use collaborative housing building in the city of Madrid. This project, focused on environmental and community sustainability, has been conceived as a building with its own energy production and a very low energy demand, housing a community based on mutual support. The Las Carolinas development consists of 17 homes, inhabited by 32 adults and 20 children.

Usera, where this innovative building is located, is a peripheral municipality of Madrid that has faced social challenges, including difficulties of access to housing. Emerging from an active neighborhood movement, this project represents a radical, anti-speculative and accessible solution that integrates with the local community. In contrast to the dynamics of marginalization and privatization that have affected the neighborhood, the Entrepatios initiative aims to create inclusive spaces that strengthen the community fabric.
The system used involves a group of people forming a cooperative, which acquires the land and constructs the building. However, the residents do not own the land; instead, they only have the right to use the building as part of the cooperative. This approach prioritizes the use value of the building over land value speculation, offering a solution against gentrification and dispossession.

Since the acquisition of the site in 2016, the cooperative has navigated various forms of participation in the management of the process, with the collaboration of Lógica'Eco for technical aspects and the architectural design by the sAtt studio and TécnicaEco. Funding came from ethical banking and donations. The building, located on an elongated south-facing site, consists of 17 apartments with access through an outdoor corrala, which serves as a circulation and meeting space. Common spaces include first floor and attic space for various community activities, as well as a small workshop in the basement and a common laundry room.

In keeping with its commitment to climate change mitigation and resident comfort, the building prioritizes energy efficiency and comfort, especially in summer, through quality insulation and renewable energy generation. The garden is drip-fed, a rainwater cistern is provided for water savings, and the materials used prevent the release of volatile organic materials. A wooden structure is used. In order to have clean air, we will have a double-flow controlled mechanical ventilation system, which will prevent pollutants from entering from the outside thanks to a filter. This initiative seeks to reduce energy demand and promote a more sustainable lifestyle in a city increasingly affected by heat. The project has been certified with ECOMETRO and has been designed with high energy efficiency standards, incorporating renewable technologies such as solar panels on the roof.

The Entrepatios building is proof of the possibility of housing that is free from speculation, resilient to climate change, and fosters cooperative and communal living in a vulnerable neighborhood of a large metropolis.

Celosia, Social Housing

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Celosia, Social Housing

Financing
Urban Design
Promotion and production
Ownership and tenure

Main objectives of the project

This social housing apartment building is located in PAU de Sanchinarro, a new neighbourhood situated on the northeast edge of Madrid. Blocks of eight houses are seen as separate prefabricated units, which are positioned in a checkerboard pattern next to and on top of each other, leaving openings for communal gardens in between.

Date

  • 2009: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Architect: Nathalie de Vries
  • Architect: Jacob van Rijs
  • Architect: Winy Maas
  • Architect: Blanca Lleó

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

The opening of the European borders has caused a real estate boom in Spain. The value has been in¬creased enormously, thus leading to an enormous production of housing. This operation is facilitated in Madrid by a giant new neighborhood that sur¬rounds the old city. A series of new cities that are mainly constructed of blocks that surround a pri¬vate patio, with a more or less introverted archi¬tecture with small windows, somehow opposes the extraverted Spanish culture.

In PAU de Sanchinarro, one of these new cities, situated on the northeast edge of Madrid, two plots are given to develop a possible “escape” from the uniformity and claustrophobia of this “sea of six-story-high blocks.”

The first escape’ in this neighborhood was the Sanchinarro Mirador (2005): an apartment build¬ing in which a huge void on the 15th floor offered an open view to the surrounding mountains and over the new neighborhood.

The second escape has been created by an “open¬ing” a given block on all levels. Blocks of eight houses are seen as separate prefabricated fig¬ures. They are positioned in a checkerboard pat¬tern next to and on top of each other in such a way that they leave openings for communal gardens in between. A perforated block appears, in which shadow and ventilation compensate for the strong climatic constraints. It creates views from the street through the building. It creates views from the houses to the surrounding area. It defends against the claustrophobic conditions of the existing developments

198 Social Housing units

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198 Social Housing units

Main objectives of the project

This housing project won first prize in a competition of design and building teams, in which constructive innovation was an essential premise.

Date

  • 1995: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Architect: Manuel de las Casas

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Spain

Description

The apartment blocks, each with five levels, house four units per floor in a linear scheme, with the majority of the 198 dwellings open to two façades. In order to shorten the period of construction, prefabricated concrete panels were employed in the enclosure, its large scale and meticulously designed joints dividing the facades into a lively pattern. Unity in the whole is obtained by combining the comb-like formation of some of the buildings with the perimetric situation of others, thus visibly closing the site. The importance attributed to the garden and other open spaces is noted in the careful paving and colorist, ceramic tile cladding of the skylights protruding out from the parking garage.

Orcasitas Settlement

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Orcasitas Settlement

Financing Public funding Sustainable development financing
Urban Design Environments Quality Liveability Inclusion Equity Regulación Técnica Participatory processes

Main objectives of the project

Improving energy efficiency and comfort in buildings and housing

Date

Stakeholders

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

The case of the Poblado Dirigido de Orcasitas is one of these good examples. Thanks to the impetus of the Guetaria Neighbourhood Association of the Poblado Dirigido and the strong commitment and leadership of its president, Manuela Navarro, 107 blocks of flats and 62 single-family houses are immersed in an interesting refurbishment process with the aim of improving their energy efficiency.
Fifty buildings have already been completely refurbished, 16 are currently under construction and the rest are awaiting the start of work, which in all cases will be carried out with European aid and subsidies (Next Generation funds) and from Madrid City Council. 3,127 families in this poor neighbourhood in the south of Madrid will benefit from this urban transformation, improving their quality of life and reducing energy-related costs. So far, 1,640 families have already benefited.

Today, the Poblado Dirigido de Orcasitas has become the first near-zero energy neighbourhood in Spain. Thanks to the mobilisation of the neighbours, the works undertaken to remove parapets, asbestos and install thermal insulation have achieved a 58% reduction in CO2 emissions. Of course, they have also improved the energy rating of the properties from E to C, with a corresponding increase in the value of the homes as a result of the improvements.
In addition to the comfort gained in the properties, which maintain a constant temperature of 19 degrees inside, residents report significant savings on their energy bills as a result of the refurbishment work.

Between 60 and 70% of these works have been subsidised by the Madrid City Council, while the remaining 30% have been financed by credit institutions, a channel specialised in refurbishment and rehabilitation of UCI (Unión de Créditos Inmobiliarios), an entity specialised in sustainable housing financing.

REGENERACIÓN URBANA DE UN BARRIO COMPLETO DE MADRID

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REGENERACIÓN URBANA DE UN BARRIO COMPLETO DE MADRID

Main objectives of the project

Se trata de un caso de regeneración urbana integral, es decir, en el cual se aúna la rehabilitación de las edificaciones con le regeneración de los espacios libres degradados para reactivar la actividad en el barrio, mejorando la afección y vinculación al mismo de sus habitantes.

Date

Stakeholders

Location

City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

El barrio del Aeropuerto, en el Distrito de Barajas, se trata de un barrio donde conviven diferentes usos, predominando en un 60% del residencial, con manzanas ocupadas por edificios de tipología de bloque abierto, de tres o cinco alturas con amplias zonas ajardinadas; mientras que para el sector terciario existen superficies destinadas a equipamientos y al sector servicios modernos edificios destinados a uso de oficinas o el sector hotelero, además de naves industriales.

Se construye en los años 60, en base a un anteproyecto redactado en 1958 por el arquitecto D. Luis Martínez Lebrato y amparado por el Plan de Urgencia Social de Madrid en el año 1957 que permitía la construcción en todo el ámbito del Plan General con la condición de efectuar una cesión del 35% del suelo. El área ocupa una superficie de 5,7 Ha., tiene una población aproximada de 1.500 habitantes (con una densidad media de 263 hab/ha.) y se caracteriza por ser un área homogénea en cuanto a tipologías edificatorias y sistemas constructivos. El conjunto está integrado por 34 bloques, con 567 viviendas.

En origen, era una barriada alejada del centro de Madrid donde el alcantarillado estaba incompleto en la mayoría de las calles y los residentes tenían que utilizar el arroyo de Rejas, que circulaba al descubierto, hasta que el Ayuntamiento lo enterró como consecuencia de unas riadas. El alumbrado público se instaló en 1969; las goteras y las grietas eran causa de desalojos de urgencia.

Authors:

PROMOCIÓN DE VIVIENDAS LA ROSILLA 4

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PROMOCIÓN DE VIVIENDAS LA ROSILLA 4

Main objectives of the project

Date

Stakeholders

  • Architect: AYBAR.MATEOS.ARQUITECTOS.

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid

Description

Una vez alcanzados los estándares propios de una sociedad moderna en confort, comodidad y salubridad en las viviendas, tanto por la normativa como por la industria, debemos evolucionar y aportar nuevos niveles de calidad en lo espacial, lo material y en sus posibilidades de evolución.

Es necesario generar propuestas capaces de adecuarse a los nuevos retos sociales y los tipos de núcleos familiares que conforman el tejido social en una exploración de lo cotidiano.

La parcela RC 4 se sitúa en un nuevo desarrollo urbanístico denominado APE 18.05 “La Rosilla” en Madrid junto al distrito de Vallecas. La Rosilla se encuentra en el triángulo formado por la Carretera de Villaverde a Vallecas, la avenida Mayorazgo y la calle Castejón de Henares.

El proyecto busca generar una pieza de transición entre el espacio urbano difuso que lo caracteriza y el nuevo parque situado al sur. Las piezas se organizan en dos escalas alternas, la que agota la altura máxima de ocho plantas y la que cuentan con cinco plantas. Su colocación ortogonal permite una heterogeneidad en la percepción desde la vía pública y una clara discontinuidad en los planos de fachadas. La limitación normativa de profundidad de los edificios a 12 metros y los límites de factores de relación entre zonas comunes y privadas aconsejan organizar el conjunto de accesos a las viviendas mediante núcleos para dos viviendas en el edificio longitudinal y núcleo para 4 en el vertical. En la búsqueda de la mejora de estos aspectos, se organizan viviendas de configuración flexible que permite una estancia pasante que contiene la cocina y el estar claramente separados y un vestíbulo con almacenamiento, de manera paralela a este espacio, se organizan las zonas de noche con los dormitorios. Esta estructura permite incluir 71 viviendas protegidas de precio básico (VPPB), 3 de ellas para PMR.

Los edificios dispondrán de un zócalo denso y rugoso construido mediante fabrica en aparejos con volumen, mientras que el resto de las envolventes de los edificios se construyen mediante un sistema SATE que optimiza el comportamiento energético del mismo. A lo largo del jardín se generan unos núcleos de actividad formados por un espacio de pavimento blando en áreas de juegos infantiles, unos bancos y una zona de plantación de plantas tapizantes y árboles que desarrollen gran porte y hoja caduca, permitiéndose la plantación al liberar el espacio bajo rasante el ámbito central de la parcela.

Authors:

CARABANCHEL 34

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CARABANCHEL 34

Main objectives of the project

Visitamos un edificio residencial multifamiliar de 25 viviendas de 1, 2 y 3 dormitorios y zonas comunes construidas bajo los estándares de Passivhaus y proyectada conforme al CTE.

Date

Stakeholders

  • Architect: Ruiz-Larrea & Asociados
  • Constructor: MARCO OBRA PÚBLICA, S.A.

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid

Description

La visita que se propone a este edificio promovido íntegramente por la EMVS, es posiblemente una visita al futuro.

Carabanchel 34 es una apuesta absolutamente innovadora, un tipo de construcción de vanguardia que agrupa las viviendas ordenadamente en una pastilla edificatoria con doble orientación.

La vivienda de 1 dormitorio dispone de zona de día formada por cocina, tendedero y estar comedor, y la zona de noche que la integran un baño y un dormitorio. La vivienda de 2 dormitorios dispone de zona de día formada por cocina, tendedero y estar-comedor y la zona de noche que la integran un baño y dos dormitorios. La vivienda de 3 dormitorios dispone de zona de día formada por cocina, tendedero y estar-comedor y la zona de noche que la integran un dormitorio principal con baño incorporado y dos dormitorios y un baño. En nuestra visita al edificio, recorreremos tanto las zonas comunes, como una vivienda de las diferentes tipologías.

Las características del edificio proyectado son:

Alto grado de confort térmico interior, tanto en la estación fría como en la cálida. Rango de confort de 20-25˚C.
Aire de calidad excepcional garantizado durante 24 horas al día.
Calidad en la construcción para evitar o minimizar los puentes térmicos, infiltraciones no deseadas, condensaciones superficiales etc.
Precios asequibles de construcción.
Reducción de las facturas de consumo energético.
Durabilidad en el tiempo de las soluciones constructivas. Garantía de un buen funcionamiento durante muchos años con medidas mínimas de mantenimiento.
No requiere comportamientos específicos del usuario para lograr un correcto funcionamiento.
Niveles elevados de satisfacción por parte del usuario / propietario.

Authors:

DISTRICT HEATING VALLECAS (ECOBARRIO)

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DISTRICT HEATING VALLECAS (ECOBARRIO)

Main objectives of the project

The Municipal Colonies of San Francisco Javier and Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, located in Vallecas, were demolished in 1997 due to their deterioration. Over 2,000 public housing units were built with centralized heating and hot water systems, as well as a waste collection system. The urbanization was completed in 2009, but the economic crisis interrupted the construction of the buildings connected to the heating system. In 2016, construction was restarted and the implementation of the system was awarded to a construction company. Tests were conducted in completed developments, and it is expected that the heating and hot water supply will be operational in five developments by early 2021. Currently, work is underway to prepare the specifications for the operation and maintenance of the facilities.

Date

  • 2018: Construction

Stakeholders

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

The San Francisco Javier and Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles Municipal Colonies (hereinafter referred to as "the Colonies"), located in the Vallecas district, were built between 1956 and 1958. In 1997, the deteriorating condition of the buildings led to their demolition, and the entire Colonies area was replaced with a new urban plan through a Special Plan.

Simultaneously, a process of relocating the residents of the Colonies took place. The objective was to construct over 2,000 public housing units distributed in 20 buildings, equipped with a centralized heating and hot water system, known as District Heating (DH), and a pneumatic waste collection system, with collection bins installed in the buildings (central waste collection). At that time, this was a pioneering system for the production of hot water in residential complexes, relying on high-efficiency boilers and hydrogen fuel cells.

Subsequently, in 2009, the urbanization works began, including the construction of roads with general urban facilities (electricity, water, gas, telephone, and street lighting) and special facilities (distribution networks for hot water and waste collection from the central facilities to the future building plots). Likewise, the construction of the central facilities started, including the corresponding chimneys for the exhaust of gases produced by the combustion of the boilers. The idea was to have a community area with children's playgrounds and spaces for adults underneath the chimneys.

Eventually, the entire Colonies area was urbanized, and the central facilities were constructed. In the generation plant, only two (2) condensing boilers were installed (out of the initially planned six (6)), as well as two (2) hydrogen fuel cells (out of the initially planned six (6)), along with the rest of the associated installations. However, the economic crisis forced the construction of the buildings that would be served by the DH to be halted, preventing the central system from being operational.

In 2016, construction activities resumed by the Municipal Housing and Land Company of Madrid (EMVS), and the new buildings of the Colonies began to be constructed. All of them are intended to receive heating and hot water supply through the DH.

The implementation of the DH start-up project was awarded to the construction company UTE Ferrovial Servicios - Siemsa Industria on July 19, 2018. Initial tests and checks carried out to analyze the condition and suitability of the existing distribution network resulted in the need to undertake a new Heat Network. Consequently, a new calculation and design of the network were carried out, based on the new energy demands requested by the project directors of the Developments associated with the heat plant and in compliance with the new regulations (Technical Building Code).

The control of the entire system, including the DH equipment and the interior installations of the Developments, will be carried out centrally from the Central building. For this purpose, the control system and connection to the Heat Network of all Developments have been unified.

As of today, the New Heat Network is constructed, and operational tests are being conducted in completed developments. It is expected that by early 2021, the DH will provide heating and hot water supply to five Colonies developments.

Work is underway to prepare the specifications that will encompass the Operation and Maintenance of both the DH system and the Developments.

Authors:

Public Housing in Carabanchel

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Public Housing in Carabanchel

Urban Design

Main objectives of the project

A group of low-rise housing blocks in an area of new development of Madrid.

Date

  • 1989: Construction

Stakeholders

  • Architect: Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos

Location

Continent: Europe
City: Madrid
Country/Region: Madrid, Spain

Description

When the project was drawn up, the area was not even partially urbanized. This made it possible to treat the site with a degree of autonomy, erecting low-rise buildings (three-storey high) spread evenly over the entire area, unlike the high-rise developments nearby. This autonomy was taken as far as possible. Fences and railings define the outer perimeter, making a clear public-private divide, creating an area in which to locate the buildings.
The houses were to be small and low-rise. This fact, along with the requirement of combining different housing programs, led to unique design problems. The idea was to avoid the somewhat harsh architectural styles often associated with the suburbs, and substitute them with a more user-friendly architecture, more concerned with certain ideas of comfort and welfare. The architects did not want the blocks to be traditional boxes, but created shapes which present different facets as one moves around them. Special attention was paid to the lateral headwalls where the blocks meet, so that what might have been mere consequence -the gap between the blocks- could also be understood, paradoxically, as having originated the design.
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